Category: April 25



    National Hug A Plumber Day on April 25th recognizes those who come to our rescue when pipes leak or drains are clogged. 


    Plumbers have kept the water flowing since ancient Rome. Whether it is a minor leak to a major clog, a plumber will have the right tool for the job. They also help us install the right pipes and plumbing types when building a house or new business. They’re the water specialists – designing plumbing systems that work when we need it. Thanks to plumbers, we have hot water on demand. Showers come with a variety of options and kitchens provide the ultimate convenience. 

    If you consider the contribution of plumbing to human life, the other sciences fade into insignificance. ~ James P. Gorman

    Consider how plumbers improve our lives and health in the modern world. Their contributions could be inventions the human race would have a difficult time living without. Given a choice between using only a flush toilet or a smartphone for the rest of your life, which would you choose?

    Progress is electricity, school consolidation, church remodeling, second farm tractors,
    second farm cars, hay balers, corn-pickers, grain combines, field choppers and indoor plumbing. ~ Ollie from the film Hoosiers

    From the moment you wake in the morning to every glass, flush and wash, a plumber makes life easier even if you never have to call one.


    • Count all the ways you appreciate plumbers.
    • Celebrate by thanking a plumber you know.
    • Send them a card or a shoutout online. They will appreciate the recognition, too.
    • And when you do, be sure to use #NationalHugAPlumberDay on Social Media.


    The holiday has been observed since at least 2009. However, we have not been able to identify the founder of the day. 

    Plumbing FAQ

    Q. How do I become a plumber?
    A. Plumbers acquire their training through either an apprenticeship or a training course. They also obtain a license.

    Q. Who invented the toilet?
    A. The first patent for a flush toilet was issued to Scottish inventor Alexander Cumming in 1775.


  • NATIONAL DNA DAY – April 25


    On April 25th, people across the nation recognize National DNA Day. On this day in 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick formally announced their discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a short letter published in the science journal, Nature


    Fast forward to 1990, when scientists from around the world came together to begin mapping the human genome. Known as The Human Genome Project, approximately 2000 scientists in six countries set to work mapping the nucleotides in human DNA. In the process, the project learned that humans share genes with other species. Some of the species the project mapped included yeast, mice, and the fruit fly – all species commonly studied in science already.

    Quote markThe genome is our map of life. ~ President William Clinton

    On June 26, 2000, the first draft of the human genome was released. By April of 2003, the project released 92% of the mapped human genome. The Telomere-to-Telomere (T2T) Consortium took on the challenge of sequencing the final 8% of the human genome. On March 31, 2022, they published six letters detailing the completion of the final 8% in the journal Science.

    The mapping of the human genome has transformed medicine and research. The ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) Project launched soon after the human genome was sequenced to study further and catalog data related to the human genome. Research including the study of different cancers and more advanced diagnostic tests may change medicine forever. 


    • Students, teachers, and the public are encouraged to learn more about genetics and genomics.
    • Read books about DNA and its discovery. 
      • The Seven Daughters of Eve: The Science that Reveals Our Genetic Ancestry by Bryan Sykes
      • The Violinist’s Thumb by Sam Kean
      • The Path to the Double Helix; The Discovery of DNA by Robert Olby
    • Watch documentaries:=.
      • “Decoding Watson – DNA: The Greatest Story Ever Told” (PBS)
      • “The Gene” (PBS)
    • Share your ideas about the day using #NationalDNADay on social media.


    In 2003, the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives proclaimed April 25th as National DNA Day, as a one-time celebration. Each year after 2003, National DNA Day celebrations have been organized by the National Human Genome Research Institute. Since this time, several groups have also declared April 25th as International DNA Day and World DNA Day. 


    Q. What are the four building blocks of DNA?
    A. DNA is comprised of four chemical bases or building blocks. They are adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine.

    Q. Do all living things have DNA?
    A. Yes. All living things have DNA.

    Q. What is a double helix?
    A. A double helix describes DNA’s two strands and spiral shape.

    April 25th Celebrated History


    U.S. military from the East and Soviet military from the West met on the banks of the Elbe River marking an important turning point of World War II.


    The U.S. Patent Office issued patent no. 2,981,877 to Robert N Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor.

    In 1957, Noyce and 7 other engineers founded Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation. There he developed one of the first integrated circuits. In 1968, he co-founded Intel Corporation and the company released the first microprocessor in 1971.


    Samantha Smith, a student from Manchester, Maine, receives a reply from Soviet leader Yuri V. Andropov. Learn more about Samantha Smith and Andropov’s response here.


    NASA astronauts deploy the Hubble Telescope from the space shuttle Discovery.

    April 25th Celebrated Birthdays

    John Frank Stevens – 1853

    The American civil engineer contributed to improved transportation by building the Great Northern Railway and in his role as chief engineer on the Panama Canal.

    Guglielmo Marconi – 1892

    While many inventors contributed to the success of the radio, Guglielmo Marconi was the first to bring a commercially viable product to market. In 1901, the inventor made history when he broadcast the first radio signal across the Atlantic.

    Edward R. Murrow -1908

    Noted radio and television news broadcast pioneer, Edward R. Murrow brought the world into people’s living rooms by allowing them to hear the action as it happened. Murrow was respected for his integrity in journalism. The Radio Television Digital News Association has awarded journalists in the field with the Edward R. Murrow Award since 1971.

    Ella Fitzgerald – 1917

    The ever-elegant “First Lady of Song” and “Queen of Jazz” earned 13 Grammys during her 60-year career.

    Al Pacino – 1940

    The award-winning actor of stage and screen earned critical acclaim in his Tony-winning performance of Does a Tiger Wear a Necktie. Three years later Pacino was nominated for an Oscar for his role in The Godfather.



    Each year on April 25th each year, National Zucchini Bread Day encourages bakers to make this delicious bread.   


    Many explorers who came to the Americas brought back what they considered strange foods, including the zucchini. The zucchini eventually found its way to Italy, where it was named zucchino. Native Americans referred to zucchini as “something eaten raw.” However, we all know that zucchini tastes best cooked, especially in bread.

    Zucchini bread is similar to other quick breads like banana bread. Other quick breads you might be familiar with making include muffins, scones, and biscuits. When baked, Zucchini and banana bread go into the oven in loaf pans. When finished, slice and serve with butter, peanut butter, jam, or just plain. 

    Basic Ingredients of a Quick Bread 
    • Fat – Bakers use shortening, butter, margarine, or vegetable oils depending on the texture they wish to achieve. Follow recipes and use only the fat called for to achieve the desired results. 
    • Sugar – Granular sugar, brown sugar, and some sugar substitutes are used. Many bakers add fruit for sweetness, substituting a portion of the sugar in the recipe. 
    • Eggs – As an emulsifier and a binding ingredient, eggs add volume and texture to quick bread
    • Flour – Most bakers use all-purpose flour, but other recipes will use alternative flours. Always follow the recipe because other ingredients have been adjusted to improve texture when using an alternative flour.
    • Liquid – Usually, milk or water moisten the mixture, activate the gluten in the flour, and dissolve the sugar.
    • Leavening agent – Either baking powder or baking soda + an acid (such as cream of tartar) are used. Baking powder is baking soda with the acid already added.
    • Flavoring ingredient – Bakers incorporate a variety of spices, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and extracts. Each one complements the flavor of the main ingredient. In a quick bread, bakers often use vanilla to enhance the flavor. 

    When mixing your ingredients, be sure to follow the recipe instructions. Over mixing prevents the bread from rising while baking causing the bread to be dense.


    • Celebrate the day by making fresh zucchini bread for yourself.
    • Dip into your freezer stash from last year’s bumper crop and bake the day away.
    • Be sure to plant more zucchini so you can celebrate this day next year, too! I
    • f you’re looking for other ways to use your zucchini (now or later in the summer) check out these 11 Delicious Ways to Enjoy Zucchini
    • Enjoy this delicious recipe: Mom’s Zucchini Bread recipe.
    • Use #NationalZucchiniBreadDay to share on social media.


    Despite the popularity of this food holiday, we have been unable to identify its origins.

    Zucchini FAQ

    Q. Are zucchini flowers edible?
    A. Yes. One of the most common ways to prepare zucchini flowers is by frying them. However, they can also be used as a garnish, stuffed, or tossed in pasta.

    Q. Is zucchini a fruit or vegetable?
    A. Botanically, zucchini is a fruit.

    Q. How many calories are in a zucchini?
    A. A one-cup serving of zucchini contains about 19 calories.




    National East Meets West Day on April 25th commemorates the day the Eastern Front of the Allied forces met the Western front on the River Elbe. Also known as Elbe Day, this day marked an important step toward ending World War II. 


    World War II had been raging for over six years. During the previous year, several events had begun turning the tides of the war against the Axis powers. In April of 1945, the Allies were marching toward peace. However, it would require a coordinated effort from both American troops in the East and Soviet armies from the West.

    The commanders directed their units not to make contact with each other. Their orders were to remain on their eastern and western banks of the river while officers from each division formalized occupation of Berlin.

    2nd Lt. William Robertson meets Lt. Alexander Silvashko during the Elbe Day. Image by: Cassowary Colorizations

    However, when the two armies met on April 25th south of Berlin outside Torgau on the River Elbe, patrols entered the river in a small boat. The first to make contact were American First Lieutenant Albert Kotzebue and Soviet Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Gardiev along with their commands.

    Two days later, photographers commemorated the event of the Eastern front meeting the Western front.


    • Learn more about World War II history.
    • Visit a World War II history museum.
    • Read about the stories from World War II.
    • Honor those who served and those who moved to bring the war to a close.
    • Use #EastMeetsWestDay or #ElbeDay to share on social media.


    On the 65th anniversary of this historic event, U.S. and Russian presidents issued a joint statement commemorating Elbe Day. In Torgau, Germany, Elbe Day events are held annually.  

    Elbe FAQ

    Q. How long is the River Elbe?
    A. The River Elbe is 1094 kilometers (610.8 miles) long and passes through the Czech Republic and Germany on its way to the North Sea.

    Photo Credit: Alois Köppl, Gleiritsch ( = Zusatz)

    Q. Is there a monument to the meeting of troops on the River Elbe?
    A. Yes. In Torgau, a monument commemorates the day.




    On April 25th, we observe National Telephone Day. Around the world, there are 9.82 billion mobile phones. And while some predicted the landline to be obsolete by 2020, there are still about 931 million landlines around the world.


    Obtaining a Patent

    The correct answer to a trivia question like “Who invented the telephone?” is the name on the patent. In this case, the whole world knows the answer is Alexander Graham Bell. Had his attorney been delayed by foul weather or poor planning, the answer may be a different name.

    On February 14, 1876, Marcellus Bailey, one of Bell’s attorneys, rushed into the U.S. Patent office in Boston to file the patent for what would be the telephone.

    Later the same day, Elisha Gray filed a patent caveat for a similar device. A caveat is an intent to file for a patent.

    There was also a third contender. Antonio Meucci filed a caveat in November of 1871 for a talking telegraph but failed to renew the caveat due to hardships.

    Because Bell submitted his record first, the patent office awarded Bell the patent on March 7, 1876. Gray contested this decision in court, but without success.

    Alexander Graham Bell

    Born March 3, 1847, in Edinburgh, United Kingdom, Bell taught at a boys’ boarding school. The sounds of speech were an integral part of his life. His father developed a “Visible Speech” system for deaf students to communicate. Bell would later become a friend and benefactor of Helen Keller.

    Three days after the patent was approved, Bell spoke the first words by telephone to his assistant. “Mr. Watson, come here! I want to see you!”

    By May, Bell and his team stood prepared for a public demonstration. And there would be no better place than the grand stage of the World’s Fair in Philadelphia. On May 10, 1876, in a crowded Machinery Hall, a man’s voice transmitted from a small horn and carried out through a speaker to the audience.

    One year later, the White House installed its first phone. The telephone revolution began.

    Bell Telephone Company was founded on July 9, 1877, and they installed the first public telephone lines from Boston to Sommerville, Massachusetts, the same year.  By the end of the decade, nearly 50,000 phones existed in the United States.  In May of 1967, phone companies across the country installed the 100 millionth telephone line.


    • Celebrate by calling someone and telling them Happy National Telephone Day!  
    • Share your vintage telephone pictures on social media.
    • Try making a call with a rotary phone.
    • #NationalTelephoneDay to show the different phones that have been used!

    Educators, visit the National Day Calendar® Classroom for lessons designed around National Telephone Day.


    In May of 1967, the 100 millionth telephone line was installed in the United States. On May 11th, governors and dignitaries for U.S. territories joined President Lyndon Johnson on the largest conference call ever held up to that date. Each governor, dignitary, and the President were issued gold phones to commemorate the day. At the same time, a proclamation was issued declaring May 12th as National Telephone Day.

    There is no record of the day being observed again on that date. However, National Day Calendar continues to research the origins of this technology day. 

    Telephone FAQ

    Q. Do payphones still exist?
    A. Yes. However, the number of payphones began declining in the mid-1990s. If you’re looking for a payphone, some cities and states have payphone maps. You can also look in public places like federal offices, libraries, transportation hubs, large shopping centers, and gas stations.

    Q. When was the first mobile phone invented?
    A. Motorola made the first mobile phone called the DynaTAC 8000x in 1983.

    Q. When was the first smartphone invented?
    A. The Simon Personal Comminicator was released in 1994 by IBM.


  • NATIONAL LIBRARY WORKERS DAY – Tuesday of National Library Week.


    Each year in April, National Library Workers Day recognizes the valuable contributions library staff make every day to their communities through their hard work and dedication. The observance takes place annually on the Tuesday of National Library Week.  


    Libraries do so much more than house the books we borrow nearly any time of the day or night. (Yes, any time, day or night. Online reservation is highly popular.) Today as always, library workers are masters of research. They find the obscure quote (or partial misquote as the case may be) helping you to annotate your research paper correctly. When you’re on a job search, they offer internet access and computers so you can polish up your résumé, too.

    Libraries also archive local history. The names of pioneers and settlers are usually recorded in books and newspapers of the era. Many libraries across the country house those books, papers, and many other resources.

    Library workers champion our youth. They foster creativity and are a wealth of diverse opportunities for growth. Not only do they create projects and inspiration for our youth, but they also create them with enthusiasm! It can be quite infectious. 

    Despite all libraries and their employees provide to their communities, their budgets and salaries continue to shrink. This day brings awareness to this continuing trend. Libraries and their employees continuously utilize the latest technologies to make information, books, and resources more accessible. Their knowledge and ability bring valuable tools directly to communities that might otherwise go without. They also serve every age group, many organizations, and entire communities.


    • Give a shout-out to a library worker you know.
    • Discover all of the resources your library offers.
    • Support your library and its staff.
    • When budget time comes for your city or state, do your part to support your library.
    • Visit your local library.
    • Use #NationalLibraryWorkersDay to post on social media.


    The American Library Association sponsors National Library Workers Day, and it was first celebrated in 2004. It was started as a way to raise support for better benefits and salaries at a time when they had been stagnant for years. The observance continues to promote increased benefits and wages for the services provided by library workers every day.

    Library Workers FAQ

    Q. What kinds of jobs do library workers do?
    A. Depending on the size of a library, there are a variety of jobs to be done. Some library workers are assistants to the librarian while others manage the entire library. A library may also hire an archivist, technician or media specialist. Others may work specifically with youth, developing programs for the children’s area.

    Q. Do libraries offer internships?
    A. Yes. Many libraries offer internships to those interested in library sciences. It’s a terrific way to develop the tools to be a skilled librarian.